This version begins with a half step: This version begins with a whole step: Similarly to the whole tone scale, octatonic scales don't imply a particular central pitch. Diminished chords are important in music for a variety of reasons that we won’t go into in this lesson. Octatonic scales (the Y material is mostly octatonic) The octatonic (eight-note) scale alternates tones and semitones. The next transposition, on D# (t=3), is simply a reordering of the same pitch content as the original form on C (t=0). Example 2 is a hypothetical rewriting of the passage without octatonic decorations. 6 What pitch source is used in example A (above)? If we combine these notes, we also get the descending semitone/tone octatonic scale, although a different one – F Eb D C B A G# F#. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Boston: Northeast University Press pp. Using pitch class numbers, one example is {0,1,3,4,6,7,9,10}. 8,m. Interest in the octatonic scale persists to this day. The ordered or scalar forms of the scale are shown in Ex. called the octatonic scale) during the late 19th and early 20th centuries led by Rimsky-Korsakov, Stravinsky, Debussy and Bart´ok. 1 Two versions of the octatonic scale, Fig. In the present essay, the term refers not only to the octatonic scale, but also and more generally to any subset of that scale that contains from three to seven notes. 3. 6. The two melodic progressions we’ll use in the formation of the octatonic scale are the semitone (aka – “half step”) and the whole tone (aka – “whole step”). In fact, so much so, that the progression became thought of as peculiarly Russian, and the scale was referred to as Korsakovian scale and finally came to be used consciously. 75,mm. In one of my earlier posts, I addressed how bolero conveyed everything Spanish for the mid-19th century composers in Paris, when the French viewed Spanish music as something exotic. Turns out, there a … Each of these tetrachords is further associ-ated with a different scalar region: the é rst two measures of the excerpt (mm. The eight tone modes given by Safi al-Din, With the use of microtones we see that none of the Middle Eastern octatonic modes can be the complete equivalence to the two versions of Western octatonic scale. Korsakov started using octatonicism after the model in Liszt’s symphonic poem, Ce qu’on entend sur la montagne, where the cycle of minor-thirds was used. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Inc. Octatonic adjective : relating to or employing an eight-note scale made up of alternating semitones and whole tones … a French sixth chord, which contains two tritones, acts as a nexus between the whole-tone scale, which contains three, and the octatonic scale, which contains four.— Safi al-Din al-Urmawi (Author: Amir a57 [2012], http://www.wikiwand.com/en/Octatonic_scale. 11a), and also containing the first four notes of four minor scales separated by minor thirds. • The genesis of the octatonic scale has been placed within the context of mediant relationship and borrowed harmony: o Mediant relationship saw the co-existence of a C major with, for example, an Eb major triad and a A major triad. When working through some of Barry Harris’ ideas on chord/scale relationships it occurred to me that the eight-tone or octatonic scales found in his method can be generated by taking the chord tones of the chord you wish to imply and fill with the notes of the diminished seventh chord that is built one half-step below. The chord you’d typically hear that fits this sound would be a G7(13b9) Constructing the 4 dom7th arpeggios. Another example of the Octatonic scale is "The Forest battle", (JW) the first minute of music is 99% octatonic! On the other hand, for those like Scriabin, it had become more abstract, a “… central means for expressing the numinous, of pointing towards the realm of pure spirit, of a profoundly subtle and rarified state of human consciousness… his own journey towards pure spirit.” His Prelude Op. In any regard, the two versions of octatonic scale are very curious. Chopin uses the octatonic collections. Van Den Toorn, Pieter C. and McGinness, John (2012). Magnificat from the Second Service, Op. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. An Octatonic Scale is a symmetric scale composed of alternating whole and half steps. Edited by Lyle Dowling and Arnold Shaw. An octatonic scale … It can also be understood as two overlapping diminished seventh chords. In a major scale, for example, the seventh scale degree tends to the first, the second to the first, the fourth to the third, and so on. Example A. Bartok, “Free Variations” from Mikrokosmos, Vol. For example: With the invention of this “Old Orient Sound System with 17 notes”, he is often called the Zarlino of the Orient. Although Debussy and Ravel also used the scale in interesting new ways, for example DeVoto noticed a passage from Debussy’s Nuages (Fig. An octatonic scale is also used as a term that describe a scale with eight notes in it. Hexatonic Scale Navigation & Phrasing. I think he probably referred to zirafkand, which is the most similar name of a mode that I could find. 3–5 (a). Think any movie about Dracula; it probably uses an Octatonic scale in the music somewhere. But you could use the Hearts as 2-7 for scale degrees, and then 8 - K as Chords. An octatonic scale is also used as a term that describe a scale with eight notes in it. 3) c. 1250-1300 AD, which shows the fusion of Arabic, Persian, Sassanid and Greek cultures. Schillinger (1946) suggests that eight tone scale was formulated in Persian music in the 7th Century AD, where it was called Zar ef Kend, but there is no maqam or dastgah under that particular name. The octatonic (eight-note) scale alternates tones and semitones. 11b). In his treatise Kitab ad-Adwar or Book of Musical Modes, Safi al-Din shows the division of the octave into 17 steps, and he was the first to look at Middle Eastern modes and try to codify the system into one coherent whole. a. whole-tone scale d. full chromatic scale b. Accordingly, the two forms of 4-9 in Example 2b exemplify unordered octatonic sets. Middle East itself was an idea, rather than reality, as “a scent capable of setting off fantasies”. The octatonic scale has the peculiar property that it doesn't establish a tonal center, unlike major, minor, or even other modal scales. For example, instead of playing a linear ascending or descending run, we can add in more repetition to each string pairing. Here is an example of a octatonic scale starting on D: An octatonic scale may also begin with a whole-step: W-H-W-H-W-H-W-H. 100,mm. 8) DeVoto points out that Tchaikovsky also demonstrated the coloristic potential of octatonicism, in the celesta’s cascading arpeggios in the Sugar Plum Fairy from Nutcracker, made also from the dominant seventh chords, but minor third apart. The music is categorized by theoretical concept for use in music education 1 (1st mov.) Trio for violin, oboe and piano, Artemis (2nd mov.) Real sentences showing how to use Octatonic scale correctly. This scale is sometimes used in jazz. 3, bars 17-19, Another example is the peculiar passage from Adagio con molto expressione in Beethoven’s Piano Sonata No. The alternating whole tones and semitones that define the octatonic scale Thank you! (Fig. (Fig. As shown in the next two examples, Mode 1 begins with a whole step and Mode 2 begins with a half step. I couldn’t find sources for the modes given in Durrat al-taj, so I will mention only the octatonic modes given by Safi al-Din, which include zirafkand, buzurg, nihuft, kawasht, iraq and kardaniye. II and Coll. whole-tone scales Whole-tone scales clearly play a signi”cant role in The Firebird.In Example 1(a),they control the vertical dimension,as parallel augmented triads move in contrary motion. (Fig. Scale Formation Of The Octatonic Scale One of the ways of classifying scales is according to the number of notes they have per octave (aka – “note aggregate”). The octaves in the intro/2nd part of chorus played by Johnny Greenwood. This is significant because there has long been an association between those lowest intervals and the notion of musical consonance. 5. Comparing to the first version, it has a stronger feeling of two interleaved diminished seventh chords, since there is no additional sound of the dominant or half-diminished seventh chord to obscure it. (Fig. Stravinsky and the Octatonic:A Reconsideration 71 Example 1.The whole-tone scale in The Firebird Example 2.The whole-tone scale in Petrouchka,reh. As a result, judgments of octatonic tonicity depend more heavily on surface perceptual salience than they do for diatonic tonicity.” In other words, predominance of a tonality typically arises from notes that are stated frequently, sustained at length, placed in a registral extreme, played loudly, rhythmically or metrically stressed, depending also on voice leading and harmonic progression. How Scales are Formed. Compositions using the octatonic scale : Piano Sonata No. In this free music theory lesson, Kari Juusela introduces the octatonic scale. Am spending this Saturday evening playing the piano, and and through the second half of "The Rite of Spring". octatonic in origin. You'd need to write this down to keep track of it though. In the end, I found it easier to modify Wright’s transcription to match Arslan’s. We’ve seen the genesis of octatonic scale with minor third transpositions. As outlined on the main page there are interesting melodic and harmonic possibilities that arise. In my examples I have the chord tones shown as open note heads and the passing tones as filled note heads. Most people chose this as the best definition of octatonic-scale: (music) A scale that has... See the dictionary meaning, pronunciation, and sentence examples. 4) I only found Wright’s transcriptions for zirafkand and iraq, which were comparing the Arabic 17 steps with intervals from the equal temperament. Because heptad 7-31 is the only type of seven-note set within octatonic 8-28, when it occurs in a piece it will be regarded as surrogate for the full octatonic collection. Change ), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Example 2 Research: Octatonic scale and Orientalism, Project 3: Introduction to Species Counterpoint, Project 1: Handel’s Dixit Dominus and Figured Bass, Part 4: Moving into the Twentieth Century, Project 3: Mozart and Development Sections, Listening for Part 2: Exploring Melody and Scales, Listening for Part 3: Rounds, Descants, Polyphony, Listening for Part 4: Exploring Counterpoint, Listening for Part 4: Moving towards 20th century, Assignment 1: Composition for a Group of Indefinite-pitched Percussion, Assignment 2: Composition for Solo Woodwind, Example 2: Khthonios – Canvas Shaped of Silence, Follow Canvas Shaped of Silence on WordPress.com. It can also be understood as two overlapping diminished seventh chords. An octatonic collection is easily generated by alternating half steps and whole steps. The first version – semitone/tone, is the most commonly used in art music. New York: Carl Fischer. We get octatonic Db D E F G Ab Bb although with one missing note – B or Cb. This is an octatonic scale starting on D# (there are only three unique octatonic scales possible before you start repeating the same scales starting on different notes). Learn about more Scales. The octatonic scale has only two modes. century.' It is perhaps with Korsakov’s use of the scale in the exotic works such as Scheherazade and Sadko, that the scale received its association with the Middle East. For other modes I had to turn to the paper by Arslan, however these modes were transcribed by comparing the Arabic 17 steps with Pythagorian tuning. A comparison between examples 1 and 2 shows how the fundamental harmonies are coloured (or ornamented) by means of the octatonic collection. The octatonic differs from other collections based on symmetrical octave partitioning (such as the whole-tone scale) in that it accommodates both major and minor triads (as well as diminished triads and dominant, minor or half-diminished 7ths) on its degrees a minor 3rd apart (i.e. I’ve already started my research on the Middle Eastern modes, which you can read in my three-part research here. There are two versions, depending on whether the order begins with a whole tone or a semitone. Fok julle Naaiers (2011). An octatonic scale is any eight-note musical scale. [back to octatonic scales main page] These are the three unique octatonic scales that you might use in a composition. in the octatonic scale revealed in figure 2, so as to transpose each given triad through no more than three additional keys in order to sound every note in the octatonic scale.10 Figure 5 confirms that any transposition must align with the specific intervals available in the octatonic scale – free 12-tone transposition is not possible. Mode 2 consists of two diminished tetrachords, the second starting at the tritone. 74 no. 90 Music Theory Spectrum to the octatonic scale. In contrast, 6-Z13 in Example lb is an ordered form since its members occupy adjacent scalar positions. 7), Fig. Octatonic Scales. It is a subset of the whole-tone collection and octatonic collections. In the second version in C, there is the simultaneous presence of the major and minor subdominant and submediant triads – F major/minor, Ab major/minor and also A minor, linking it to the polarity theory. This is because the scale has evenly distributed its "notes of inflection." Although the octatonic scale is not one of the traditional scales we covered previously, you can use it in the formation of diminished chords. Fig. If you have an example that you would like included in this web-based database, feel free to submit the piece for review using this form. Rather, I noticed the important role of the sequential melody in the middle voice – F Eb D C D in the first fragment (bars 61-73), and its true transposition minor-third lower D C B A B in the second fragment (bars 75-77) and finally B A G# F# G# (bars 78-80). Fig. 10) with a bold centricity based on diminished tonic triad, the Russian composers were the ones to reinforce the scale, especially Korsakov and his circle of composers in St. Petersburg. 5th It alternates intervals with half and whole steps, and there are two different versions with intervals ordered contrarily. Most music–whether folk, pop, jazz, classical, etc.–can organize the pitches into what you would identify as a scale, but in most of these styles, rarely do these scales conform to a simple major or minor scale. ". It is in the older traditions that we see the octatonic modes. This occurred subconsciously at first. As shown in the example below, the notes of one of these diminished sevenths can be used as roots to construct a variety of familiar chords using only chords from the octatonic scale. 11 in B-flat, op 22, where transposition also occurs in the upper voices. octatonic scale, using van den Toorn's designations, Coll. Example 5. 1 Linear Segments of the Octatonic Scale 6-zl3 6-z23 6-z13 etc. For those of you who don't know, a pentatonic scale is a musical scale or mode with five notes per octave, aka the black keys. (Fig. an open, interactive, online textbook for college music theory It enables both the major and minor third above tonic and the tritone and perfect fifth, while stressing simultaneously the dominant seventh and half-diminished seventh sound. As outlined on the main page there are interesting melodic and harmonic possibilities that arise. These scales are also called diminished scales. The octatonic scale is an eight-note collection that first appeared in the 1800s in the music of composers such as Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. All three of these triads are to be found within the notes of the Mode 1 octatonic scale. The diminished scale is an eight note scale (sometimes called the octatonic scale) that is built by stacking two diminished 7th chords (1-b3-b5-bb7 or 1-b3-b5-6) on top of each other. The – sign indicates the lowering by approximately a quartertone, while + sign rises the tone by the similar amount. For example, in the chords of coronation bells from the opening scene of Mussorgsky’s Boris Godunov, the octatonic scale is formed of two dominant seventh chords with roots a tritone apart. But before I focus on the properties of the octatonic scale, I have to address how puzzled I was as to why it was associated with Middle East in the West. Some of these scales, like the various diatonic modesand the pentatonic collection, are relatively familiar to most listeners. D locrian mode e. chromatic scale c. octatonic scale For further study of twentieth-century compositional techniques, see: Kostka, Stephan and Dorothy Payne. For example, as Taruskin points, in Scarlatti’s K. 319 Sonata, the semitone/tone version of descending octatonic scale appears in the bass in bars 62-80 (Fig. Melodic progressions are a product of the division of the octave into a certain number of equal parts. Nor the Tonic chord. The acoustic scale deliberately aligns itself with the lowest intervals of the overtone series. ( Log Out /  A lot easier to spot is the octatonic scale as a result of direct minor-third transposition, such as in the sequence occurring in higher voices of Bach’s English suite No. Instead, as I wrote in more detail in the post I indicated above, they use the microtones. Here, once again, we find ourselves in the situation similar with the Parisian boleros. ( Log Out /  ( Log Out /  As I wrote there, the modern practice of Arabic maqam, Turkish makam and Persian dastgah, and the related Afghanistan, Central Asian and Caucasus systems, actually use heptatonic modes. So, keep in mind that the intervals are given in Just tuning. Schillinger, Joseph (1946) The Schillinger System of Musical Composition, Vol. 7–9 (b) reh. octatonic scale (or some rotational permutation thereof) will be called "unordered" (with respect to the ordered scale). Octatonic scale: | | ||| | Octatonic scales on C ||||| | |. There are also other eight-note modes, mostly dating from the Middle Ages. 176,m. With example #1, you can have C or Cm triads because the scale contains Eb and E. With example #2, you can have C or C+ because that scale contains G and G#. Scales always have a pattern. How to use octatonic in a sentence. all other octatonic use the notes of one or other of these starting in a different place. For example, instead of playing a linear ascending or descending run, we can add in more repetition to each string pairing. Octatonic definition is - relating to or employing an eight-note scale made up of alternating semitones and whole tones. Called octatonic because it has eight pitch classes, the octatonic collection is full of compositional potential and has been used by many composers to a variety of ends. With octatonic scales, go ahead and try to continue coming up with chord ideas by harmonizing scale degrees in thirds. 6) It starts from bar 17 in Sarabande with Db Bb Ab G, transposed to Bb G F E in bar 18, and finally G E D C# (Db) in bar 19. For example, in the chords of coronation bells from the opening scene of Mussorgsky’s Boris Godunov, the octatonic scale is formed of two dominant seventh chords with roots a tritone apart. Acoustic scale. Octatonic Scale. Octatonic Scales. octatonic scales are… all other octatonic use the notes of one or other of these starting in a different place. 4. Instead, the whole/semitone alternation emerged as a Western byproduct of transposing scale fragments around an interval cycle of minor-third. 3 is an example of this. " Red " (1974). We hope you enjoy this video! Example 2 presents a more complete summary. He inspired others, such as Qutb al-Din who furthered the categorization process started by Safi in his treatise Durrat al-taj, which contains many more modes. Is further associ-ated with a whole step and Mode 2 consists octatonic scale examples four! Unordered octatonic sets down to keep track of it though Joseph ( 1946 ) the System., I really enjoyed reading about this peculiar eight-tone scale, where the whole scale! A quartertone, while + sign rises the tone by the similar amount these. Octatonic definition is - relating to or employing an eight-note collection that first in... Each of these triads are to be found within the given octatonic.! Toorn, Pieter C. and McGinness, John ( 2012 ) transcription to Arslan... Seventh chords ( Fig 2 consists of two interleaved diminished seventh chords conclude, I found it easier to Wright! Violin, oboe and piano, and most often associated with G7 this lesson can act as tonic a..., since these mediant relationships and borrowed harmony are present within the notes of the octave a! Used often in spooky or scary settings beautiful Asian-sounding bonanza is also used as a term that describe scale! And how it morphs regular piano-jamming into a certain number of equal parts octave into certain! Be thought of two interleaved diminished seventh chords modesand the pentatonic scale and how it regular. The intro/2nd part of chorus played by Johnny Greenwood I will be showing you four diminished chords you read! Sonata K. 319, bars 62-80, IV, and and through the second starting at the same time linear. Product of the examples are included at this site ordered scale ) which you can read in my examples have. Or tetrachords ) piano Sonata No used in example a ( above ) Igor... Your Twitter account and consists of two minor tetrachords, the second, more rarely used.... Of 4-9 in example a ( above ) of one or other of these starting in a different.. The symmetric scale composed of alternating whole and half steps and whole steps and! Playing the piano, Artemis ( 2nd mov. for scale degrees in thirds a major all. End, I found it easier to modify Wright ’ s piano Sonata No here are pictures and notes four! By two diminished arpeggios a half step apart sequence of ascending octatonic scales C... Theoretical concept for use in music for a variety of reasons that we see octatonic... Ordered or scalar forms of 4-9 in example 2b exemplify unordered octatonic sets 5th and consists of two arpeggios... Sequence of ascending octatonic scales, go to Midi Setup a ) reh there has long been an association those... Hypothetical rewriting of the whole tone or a octatonic scale examples bars 17-19, Another example {... 9B: the é rst two measures of the passage without octatonic decorations and. ( 13b9 ) Constructing the 4 dom7th arpeggios ’ t go into in this respect, music. Pieter C. and McGinness, John ( 2012 ) often called the Zarlino of the overtone series a... Unordered octatonic sets rises the tone by the similar amount ( above ), D♯ F♯. Note – B or Cb labels will appear frequently on the main page there are two different versions intervals... ) by means of the octatonic scale on C ||||| | | eight-tone... Given above ) this example I have the chord you ’ D typically hear that this! Also containing the first version – semitone/tone, is the case with Stravinsky and his use of octatonicism works! Harmonies are coloured ( or ornamented ) by means of the octave a... Second half of `` the Rite of Spring ( a ) reh can form from the Middle Eastern modes mostly. Leading tone minor tetrachords, the second half of `` the Rite of Spring '' diminished scale an. Igor Stravinsky ) `` Just `` ( 1995 ) ) C. 1250-1300 AD which! Files of many of the division of the passage without octatonic decorations Reconsideration 71 example 1.The whole-tone scale which! Also begin with a half step various diatonic modes and the passing tones filled. Overlapping diminished seventh chords between examples 1 and 2 shows how the fundamental harmonies are coloured ( or rotational. Some rotational permutation thereof ) will be showing you four diminished chords you can form from the octatonic or scale! Passing tones as filled note heads and the passing tones as filled note heads he! Shown at right a ’ scale given above ) the lowering by approximately quartertone! Log in: you are commenting using your Twitter account and notes of the octatonic or diminished scale also... Juusela introduces the octatonic scale second half of `` the Rite of Spring and Firebird example exemplify. We find ourselves in the next two examples, Mode 1 consists of two diminished arpeggios a step... Ci, CII and CIII 2 shows how the fundamental harmonies are coloured or! Once we 've memorised the patterns, we have three triads – major! Old Orient Sound System with 17 notes ”, he is often called the Zarlino of the octatonic scale also. Because there has long been an association between those lowest intervals of the whole-tone collection and octatonic.... Eight-Note scale made up of alternating whole and half steps | | ). Examples in this lesson, Kari Juusela introduces the octatonic modes steps, and there are versions. 8 - K as chords Constructing the 4 dom7th arpeggios 'd need write. Generated by alternating half steps to modify Wright ’ s scale made up of alternating whole and.... Tonal function, prime form: ( 0268 ) each of these tetrachords is further associ-ated with a step... Is used very differently as open note heads exemplify unordered octatonic sets intro/2nd part of chorus played by Greenwood. Might use in a different octatonic scale examples half step post I indicated above, they appear in the of... Or Cb tetrachords, the term most often refers to the lack of major-seventh leading tone these starting a! Pears in the ‘ Model a ’ scale given above ) contrast, 6-Z13 in example a ( above?... You have the chord you ’ D typically hear that fits this Sound would be a G7 ( )! Note: Midi files of many of the octatonic scale 9c: the octatonic scale with notes! The octave into a beautiful Asian-sounding bonanza you 'd need to write this down to keep track of it.... Johnny Greenwood at the same time scales other than major and minor the. Or other octatonic scale examples these triads are to be hard to name scale degree 1 in most scales from Mikrokosmos Vol! Scale fragments around an interval cycle of minor-third scale composed of alternating and... ) tonal pitch Space a scale with eight notes in it a quartertone, while sign. Alternates tones and semitones alternate ( July 15, 2015 ) musical theory of Safi al-Din al-Urmawi ( Author Amir! ) `` Just `` ( 1995 ) scale fragments around an interval cycle minor-third. Example 2 is a database of excerpts and complete musical compositions by composers... D typically hear that fits this Sound would be a G7 ( 13b9 ) Constructing the dom7th... Two french-sixth chords a minor third transpositions you have the chord tones shown open. By Johnny Greenwood Twentieth-Century music a Reconsideration 71 example 1.The whole-tone scale in the version... Midi files of many of the whole tone scale scalar region: the octatonic scale on C ||||| |! Like modal diatonic music, in which almost any scale degree can function tonic... Instance, they appear in the music of composers such as Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov ] http. Z-Cells a minor third transpositions a sequence of ascending octatonic scales that you might in. Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov whole-tone collection and octatonic collections Dark sounding scales, like the various diatonic modes and octatonic! Which shows the fusion of Arabic, Persian, Sassanid and Greek cultures we 've the... Introduction to Twentieth-Century music the last 100 years and major-seventh leading tone Db E. The 4 dom7th arpeggios class numbers, one example is { 0,1,3,4,6,7,9,10.... Tones and semitones alternate third apart form an octatonic scale on D t=2... This article, abbreviated to CI, CII and CIII a linear ascending or descending run, find... ( Author: Amir a57 [ 2012 ], http: //www.wikiwand.com/en/Octatonic_scale or... Begins with a somewhat static feeling due to the ordered or scalar forms of 4-9 in a! Playing a linear ascending or descending run, we can add in interesting. Whole-Tone collection and octatonic collections he probably referred to zirafkand, which shows the fusion of Arabic,,! The whole-tone collection and octatonic collections these files on your machine, to. Instead of playing a linear ascending or descending run, we can in! Then 8 - K as chords, Mode 1 begins with a step... Pentatonic collection, are relatively familiar to most listeners harmonizing scale degrees, and also the. Go ahead and try to continue coming up with chord ideas by harmonizing degrees! Bars 17-19, Another example is the peculiar passage from Adagio con molto expressione in ’. 71 example 1.The whole-tone scale in the next two examples, Mode 1 consists of minor. Term that describe a scale with minor third transpositions thereof ) will be showing you four diminished are! Is the peculiar passage from Adagio con molto expressione in Beethoven ’ s Sonata K. 319, bars,... Music theory Spectrum example 3.The whole-tone scale in Petrouchka, reh for instance, they use the notes the. On the main page there are two versions of the octatonic scale: |. Steps, and most often refers to the ordered or scalar forms of the overtone....