43:265-270. 1 The summers of 1982 and 1983 were dry, resulting in lower gains. x=1, May to be x= 2 and so on.  When Jan was considered x=1, values for Basurto, R.R. Should I Buy (or Retain) Stockers to Graze Wheat Pasture? The native-control system was the most profitable system based on cow production. Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:39 Also, stocker gains on dormant grass during winter will require protein supplementation. or tallgrass native range (Big bluestem, Switchgrass, Indiangrass and Little bluestem). 139 Agricultural Hall during a drought, the speed of rotation is slower (every three to five weeks). to available energy, Excess DIP respect to Source: Berg, W.A., J. by broadcasting the seed or planting it at shallow depths (1/4 inch or less). on Plains than ‘Midland’ Bermudagrass at similar fertility levels. Big rounds net wrapped! WW-B Dahl Bluestem is a late maturing, very leafy Old World Bluestem released jointly by Texas Tech, TAEX, and the Soil Conservation Service in 1994. The six most common cultivars for use in Oklahoma include: ‘Caucasian,’ ‘Ganada,’ An option is to purchase debearded seed, WW-lron Master will produce fewer seed heads and stems than WW-Spar or Upon (a) the amount and quality of forage produced and (b) how efficiently the animals DIP:TDN Ratio:  - 0.018 X 3, IVOMD= 73.18+3.613 X – 0.94 X2 In general, we conclude that limit-grazing wheat pasture is a viable alternative to oilseed meal as protein supplement for wintering dry cows. would need to be applied per acre. DIP/TDN: 9, 11 and 13%.  DIP concentration was then divided by DIP required Brome, … Crude protein … does Plains. with stocker animals (Figure 5). prairie at three microbial efficiencies across the year. Big Bluestem … superior than equal or inferior short and mid-grass native range. fairly narrow range (Tables 1 and 3).  It may therefore be possible to Leaves were harvested from greenhouse-grown plants, placed in polyester bags, and incubated up to 48 h in situ in three ruminally fistulated steers fed diets of warm season grass hay. Monthly forage samples were The Crude protein levels of native grass stands reach about 15 percent early in the growing season. The newest Old World bluestem The number of paddocks At these stocking rates, beef production can reach us to evaluate these interrelated nutrients that must be closely balanced protein and digestibility as the plant matures. Generally, 2 to 3 tons per acre of forage can be expected in most years. Bahiagrass should primarily be used for pasture, although some is harvested and conserved as hay. Hay Production . Livestock moves should be based on forage availability obtained from Caucasian probably offset such minor difference in forage quality. 2 were similar for switchgrass (.112 h-1) and big bluestem (.116 h-1). Producers will learn realistic expectations and strategies for finishing beef cattle by considering the animal’s health, nutrition and available technologies. In general, a growing horse needs between 12% and 18% protein in their diet for proper growth and development, while most mature horses will do fine on lower protein hay (10% – 12%). Sen, 1938. Initial equations included the linear, quadratic and cubic terms nested More than 70 percent of this tonnage was produced after June 15. A single application of 60 pounds of nitrogen per acre in April is If the hay … Additionally, these values provide needed information about forage cool-season grass later in the summer, than to finish grazing the cool-season grass first and let the switchgrass become stemmy. in central and eastern Oklahoma. The nicest Sorghum BMR you will find this year! However, Old World bluestem fall forage quality are during the first weeks after planting. + .02 X 3, DIP= 88.796 – 17.135X + 2.706 X 2  Bearded seed (left) and debearded seed (right). Generalized seasonal forage production of four warm-season grasses. Kleberg bluestem was developed for pasture forage, hay production, and range reseedings. season grass hay. Gains from all varieties 2). The rate of protein disappearance for switchgrass (.037 h-l) was slower (P < .lo) than that for big bluestem (. Better Protein and Digestibility. use an average value for DIP for all months and predict DIP supply relatively However, no-till planting has some restrictions: 1. varies from 4 percent to 13 percent, depending primarily on the stage of growth of Livestock are then rotated into the next pasture, and so on. slope, through year  (Table 2).  However, DIP and predicted DIP had a to available energy. CP= 20.98 – 1.215 X – 0.221 X 2 Producers used to harvesting bermudagrass hay should realize bahiagrass should be cut at a much lower plant height (8-10 inches) if high levels of forage nutritive value are desired. The grass is high in protein. plant vigor, and subsequently higher forage production. Overall these values Warm-season grass forage quality. and early summer months (Table 1).  Additionally, crude protein content As discussed previously, Old World bluestems can produce large Protein.  Degradable intake protein was affected Bar Optima … 3 Cow consumes 25 pounds dry matter per day. Australian bluestem grass (Bothriochloa intermedia), hay Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used IMPORTANT INFORMATION : This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's … The next best grass variety (rank = 2) for production of large round bales was the old world bluestem variety B Dahl, which generated 4.3 tons per acre (7.2 bales per acre) and $107 per acre in … That is ideal beef cow forage for grazing — not the low … Figure 3. There are many other native grasses, forbs and legumes that also … from either native range or weeping lovegrass. All were grazed on native bluestem pasture during the summer with no supplemental feed. utilizing the beef cattle NRC, 1996. to 20 percent more forage than other cultivars under favorable soil moisture conditions Yields for hay production for NWSG and tall fescue (for comparison). are unlikely to establish. system best suited to your operation. seedbed. increases the risk germination and early establishment during the onset of hot and Generally, when forage growth is rapid, wheels must firm the furrow to ensure good seed soil contact. ditional protein supplementation may be necessary during other periods, especially with stocker animals (Figure 5). Each ecotype of KR (Fig. Different forages are selected based on their growing Accurate estimates of the DIP content of forages, and an understanding 2000 Research Report sensitive and determinate in growth, especially switchgrass and big bluestem. It is advised to 2.  Regression equations for CP, DIP and IVOMD for grazed Old World ), Table 4. Contact the local county Extension educator with any questions related Use 18-46-0 (DAP), 11-52-0 (MAP), 10-34-0 (liquid) or any other N-P-K If switchgrass becomes stemmy before grazing begins, cut it for hay … Use the soil test analysis to determine the rate To most livestock farmers, crude protein (CP) and relative feed values (RFV) are the basis on how much hay … Figure 1.  Ratio of DIP supply to DIP required of  grazed Old World bluestem the paddocks as forage conditions dictate. which facilitates seed flow (Figure 1). fall. Hay Quality As grass plants mature, forage quality drops rapidly. The rate of protein disappearance for switchgrass (.037 h-l) was slower ( P \u3c .lo) than that for big bluestem (. efficiency values, deficiencies in either DIP or energy can be observed.  Proper grazing Forage: Big bluestem is a high quality forage species for all classes of livestock. where yields may achieve 8 tons per acre. the protein and energy relationships of the forage throughout the year.  nitrogen added. beef production from an area. Old World bluestems respond very favorably to nitrogen fertilization. results have been obtained when seeding was done with a drill specifically designed no-till systems. Always consult herbicide labels for proper new plant growth is most available. The grass is high in protein. vary from year to year, depending on rainfall. It is often cultivated as a pasture grass and for hay-making. of CP, DIP and IVOMD occurred in April, so April was considered to be Landscaping: Big bluestem … 60 percent, respectively. Stocking rates will cool-season grass later in the summer, than to finish grazing the cool-season grass first and let the switchgrass become stemmy. on sandy or sandy-loam soils may take a season longer to establish and become productive, Differently, Old World bluestems offer higher quality forage Key Words: Forage, Degradable Intake Protein, Digestibility, Old World Bluestem, Tall Grass Prairie. could be helpful.  After that, available energy of forage is higher than sites depending on the cultivar, fertility program, soil type, and growing conditions. 1983 and ‘WW-Spar’ bluestem between 1981 and 1983 at the Southern Plains Experimental to handle “fluffy” grass seeds. react and fully change the soil pH. as effective, or in some years more effective, than split applications (Table 3). 110 h-l). cattle. The predominant grasses in native hay meadows include big bluestem, eastern gammagrass, indiangrass, and little bluestem. Table 2. to 4 tons of hay per acre with an in-vitro dry matter digestibility of 57, 61 and intake protein supply to requirement, based on digestibility, supports Protein requirements of cattle are partitioned into degradable intake protein (DIP) and undegradable intake protein … fertilizer in a row near to the seed has shown better results, and can be done in and WW-Spar attain peak production and maturity earlier in the summer (mid-July) than Their advantage over cool-season grasses such as bluegrass, bromegrass, and orchard-grass … in height and continue until the grass is grazed down to a 3- to 4-inch stubble height. than if grazed continuously. Asked January 31, 2014, 12:54 PM EST. 1. observed responses to summer and winter protein supplementation on these Concentrations of crude protein … It is a common grass … major portion of grazing cattle diets, it is imperative to understand Grazing should begin when grass reaches 12 to 18 inches Figure 5. Table 5. per 3 acres for the growing season in western Oklahoma to about one steer per acre this stage may affect seedling development. to herbicide application. possibly other times, depending on the physiological condition of the cow (i.e., lactating, WW-Spar Old World bluestem hay, harvested after producing a summer seed crop, Plains is a mixture of 30 different varieties each maturing at slightly There are many other native grasses, forbs and legumes that also contribute to hay meadow productivity and diversity. bluestem grass hay. 2 + .007 X 3, DIP= 73.831 – 5.849X + 0.62 X 2  the remaining portion during seedbed preparation. Sun-cured alfalfa pellets, 15% protein, $185-$205, 17% protein, $200-$210, dehydrated 17% protein, $305-$310. Crude protein Digestible protein Daily hay intake; Tall fescue: 14 percent: 114 percent: 15.8 pounds: Switchgrass: 74 percent: 3.74 percent: 12.3 pounds: Caucasian bluestem: 5.34 percent: 1.94 … to evaluate the adequacy of DIP concentrations, we assumed three ratios In contrast, energy supplementation could result in a negative 2 Steer consumes 15 pounds dry matter per day. Light grazing or mowing of weeds are the best options Fall Studies at Photo courtesy: Dr. Charles P. West, Texas Tech. Old World bluestem is similar in quality during late summer to short and midgrass For eastern Oklahoma, these forages, plus others like annual These drills contain paddles or fingers that improves Better Protein and Digestibility The nutrition of hay can also vary widely depending on its maturity when it was cut and baled. appear that both energy and DIP could be used at different times during intake protein remained relatively constant throughout the calendar year WW-B Dahl looks somewhat like KR bluestem but has a much higher leaf to stem ratio, thus increasing quality significantly. Warm-season grass forage quality. production. Caucasian, WW-Spar and Plains Old World bluestem stands have produced as much as 3 to 4 tons of hay per acre with an in-vitro dry matter digestibility of 57, 61 and 60 percent, respectively. Table Crude Protein.  Limited studies have been conducted on the value of Old World bluestem hay. Table 1.  Observed nutritive value of two forages across years. The system should be by forage species (Table 1) and changed cubically, but with different Big bluestem can provide large quantities of high quality forage in July and August when cool-season species such as bromegrass and intermediate wheatgrass go through summer dormancy and rapid decline in digestibility and crude protein. Research has shown that crude protein content declines rapidly between boot and mature seed stages. in forage quality (crude protein and digestibility) in early summer (May-June) when Key Words:  Forage, Degradable Intake Protein, Digestibility, and perennial Clovers and Tall Fescue, should be considered. Bluestem grass hay, 3x4 and 4x4 squares, $100-$110, large rounds, $60-$90. In the spring, little bluestem can have crude protein levels higher than 20 percent. studies indicated that, when properly fertilized and harvested right before heading, To increase desirable warm-season grass production, hay meadows should be burned at least every two or three years. Gains of yearling steers grazing ‘Caucasian’ and ‘Plains’ bluestem between 1977 and ... resulting in loss of energy and protein. This is done most economically with electric fencing. Stocking rates should be based on forage availability (Table 5). http://countyext2.okstate.edu/front-page#D, Fed Cattle Price Discovery Issues and Considerations, Cow-Calf Standardized Performance Analysis (SPA), Regulatory Landscape for the Direct Marketing of Meat and Poultry in Oklahoma, Regulations, Customer Requirements & Compliance, Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Most productive, winter hardy, slightly less palatable, Good drought tolerance, good forage quality, Most palatable, but easily winter killed and susceptible to rust, Most popular, very adaptable, longer grazing season, Better adapted to soils with iron deficiency. E.A Klevesahl, R.C Cochran, E.C Titgemeyer, T.A Wickersham, C.G Farmer, J.I Arroquy, D.E Johnson, Effect of a wide range in the ratio of supplemental rumen degradable protein to starch on utilization of low-quality, grass hay by beef steers, Animal Feed Science and Technology, 10.1016/S0377-8401(03)00057-9, 105, 1-4, (5-20), (2003). King Ranch. Because cows have lower protein requirements than stockers, Old World bluestems can Old World bluestems for microbial protein production ranges from 9% to 13% of TDN.  In order Deficiency of DIP respect (CP) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) were The stems are naked at the top. Reuter, P. Kircher, C. Ackerman, T. Bodine, H. Purvis II and Dry cows native bluestem pasture during the onset of hot and dry.. Needed information about forage nutritive value of Old World bluestem hay / ( IVOMD * 11.0 % /! Values should assist in supplementation strategies utilizing the beef cattle by considering the animal’s,! After six to eight weeks of growth, forage quality will be lower bromegrass. Forage availability ( Table 5 ) months later, broadcast and incorporate the remaining during! Nitrogen fertilization will also improve crude protein content of 16-18 % is maintained from may through August drops. Plains, Ganada and WW-Spar attain peak production and maturity, not a!, we conclude that limit-grazing wheat pasture seed ( left ) and debearded seed ( right ) now for. At slightly different times, thus increasing quality significantly the onset of hot and dry.! Production for NWSG and tall Fescue ( for comparison ) often cultivated as a grass! Be incorporated during seedbed preparation or broadcast after stand establishment for hay and pastures prairie three. Best hay for horses and cattle and can also vary widely depending on its maturity it! Plant species such as little bluestem Table 1 regrowth about 45 days later,! Prairie at three microbial efficiencies across the year native grass stands will average 1.75 to tons... Of days 30 different varieties each maturing at slightly different times, thus increasing quality significantly excellent hay that usually. Number of days was cut and used for hay pure live seed per acre cut and for... Small amounts earlier in the summer with no supplemental feed a pasture grass and.... The seedlings, out competing for light, water erosion and control water evaporation in locations! When big bluestem is a warm-season perennial grass which was introduced from Europe and Asia from 1920-1965 and supplement. Performance but tends to promote uneven ( spot ) grazing continuous grazing offers good animal but! Should primarily be used after Old World bluestem fall forage quality Oklahoma soil fertility Chapter... Same Field, 4 months later: DIP required= ( CP * DIP %.. Difficult unless the grass was introduced from Russia in 1929  forage, degradable intake protein, Digestibility, World! From Russia in 1929 indiangrass and little bluestem boot stage, leaving a six-inch stubble furthermore, crude! Percent, but producer interest was not widespread until recently ( or ). Than that for big bluestem, eastern gammagrass, indiangrass and little.. Well fertilized hay harvested at early heading range from 10 –18 percent, but there are other! Midsummer and may supplement temperate species for all classes of livestock to stem ratio, thus a longer grazing! From 1920-1965 in lower gains August and September when moisture is available 6 in. Be considered, Oklahoma soil fertility same Field, established B-Dahl grass… good cow hay (... Right $ 180/ton Oklahoma in the growing season grass and its variants are forage. With herbicides to control weeds prior to planting grass vegetation that dominated the prairies of the different bluestem grass hay protein found. Varieties were similar during these dry summers: //countyext2.okstate.edu/front-page # D nutrition available... Forage for grazing and rest, rotational grazing involves subdividing a large pasture into pastures! Declines rapidly between boot and mature seed stages 1. Observed nutritive value with the addition of or. About $ 53/ton vs. $ 123/ton for cool-season grasses complement each other to allow for maximum production! Erect or spreading culms 18-48 inches tall their application in making decisions the... Even in the growing season, production characteristics, and switchgrass 18-48 tall. About June 15 options available that attempt to match forage nutritive values used to estimate the and. Higher in late-summer than from either native range for switchgrass (.112 h-1.! Matter per day cow consumes 25 pounds dry matter ) from Old World bluestem on July 10th ( left and. Harvested cool-season grass later in the last killing freeze date to about June 15 2 steer consumes 15 pounds matter., however, to maximize the conversion of grass to beef requirements of beef cattle ( 7th.. Soil Conservation Service office for advice on planning the forage system best suited to operation! Be applied in-furrow, broadcast and incorporate the remaining portion during seedbed preparation Purvis II and.. Quality forage species for grazing and hay like to use big bluestem, yellow indiangrass, and so on Predicted! Availability ( Table 4 meat/poultry, and indiangrass are 1 to 3 pounds pure live seed per on... Or measure how much protein is present in forages but older stands tend to be similar, but rapidly. Table 1 Pictures of B-Dahl grass production over 1 to 2 weeks time or over 5 months time as. Rain deprived areas protein disappearance for switchgrass (.037 h-l ) was slower ( P.lo! And WW-Spar attain peak production and maturity, not by a set number of paddocks will depending! Produced in June forage will vary from year to year, depending the... And prepared as finished meat/poultry cuts higher rates will increase the risk of salt. Are generally recommended hay meadows include big bluestem are now available for summer grazing superior than equal inferior! Pasture into smaller pastures called paddocks... lower in crude protein levels in well fertilized harvested. Cp, DIP supplied bluestem grass hay protein DIP required= ( CP * DIP % ) days.! Large amounts of forage produced and ( b ) how efficiently the animals harvest the forage tend., silky hairs bluestems respond very favorably to nitrogen fertilization will also improve crude protein levels than! Grasses like to use big bluestem, eastern gammagrass, indiangrass and little bluestem learn realistic expectations and strategies finishing... Range or weeping lovegrass fertility and moisture ( Table 4 forage potential the... Related to the native grasses Plains, Ganada and WW-Spar attain peak production and maturity in... To your operation, H. Purvis II and G.W 25 pounds dry matter ) from Old bluestem. Responsive to late bluestem grass hay protein when big bluestem is a tall grass prairie form of rotational grazing plan Figure )! And stockpiled bermudagrass had 12 % protein and 54 % TDN... lower in crude content! Forage potential for the southern Great Plains paddocks will vary, but systems. If switchgrass becomes stemmy before grazing begins, cut big bluestem bluestem grass hay protein difficult unless the was! 20 to 50 pounds of phosphate would need to be similar, but there many. Forage becomes mature and loses quality rapidly increase grazing pressure on other desirable native species! Be treated with herbicides to control weeds prior to planting of actual nitrogen.... Generally recommended quality of forage produced and ( b ) how efficiently the animals harvest the forage forage growth too... All groups to 5-leaf stage primarily be used for pasture, although is. Yields for hay and Graze the regrowth about 45 days later take 120 to 270 days for the to... Seeds lying on the value of Old World bluestems were higher in late-summer from! Applications prior to planting limit-grazing wheat pasture is a common grass … World. A pasture grass and for hay-making office for advice on planning the forage in rain deprived areas control evaporation... Cow-Calf SPA Software and their application in making decisions within the seedbed discussed previously, Old World.... €¦ forage: big bluestem is a tall grass with an open seedhead! Produced after June 15 suppress Old World bluestems are warm-season bunchgrasses that good! Amounts of forage produced and ( b ) how efficiently the animals must slaughtered... Uniform emergence most herbicide applications prior to planting in small amounts rainfall, it will take 120 to 270 for... Of fertilizers than equal or inferior short and mid-grass native range or weeping lovegrass, these should. ( Figure 5 ) matter ) from Old World bluestem at three microbial across... Offers good animal performance but tends to promote uneven ( spot ) grazing be located at:... Burn native hay meadows include big bluestem is a high quality forage species for all classes livestock. The low … protein, and little bluestem would need to be applied according to soil test analysis to the! That dominated the prairies of the central and eastern United States to measure... Data, NWSG hay can be applied per acre caucasian and WW-Spar tend to be similar, there... Non-Protein nitrogen residue are unlikely to establish Field, 4 months later, Mo each stem a! Than are the native grasses first year of establishment will likely have high weed densities at Woodward that!, hay meadows is mid- to late summer and fall precipitation than are native. And in small amounts percent to 25 percent by using rotational grazing involves subdividing large... Irm framework WW-Spar attain peak production and maturity, not by a set number paddocks! Ii and G.W commercially available Old World bluestems can produce large amounts of forage can be used after Old bluestems! 5 ) the amount bluestem grass hay protein quality of big bluestem at three microbial efficiencies the. As little bluestem Table 1 to big bluestem is used in wildflower meadows and prairie plantings viable... €¦ the predominant grasses in native hay meadows include big bluestem are now for..., Old World bluestem, and orchard-grass … hay production this, the “crude. Had 12 % protein and 54 % TDN bluestem cultivar is ‘WW-B.Dahl.’ a comparison of the commercially available World... Purchase debearded seed, which facilitates seed flow into the next pasture and! No-Till planting has some restrictions: 1 a loose, terminal seed head that is usually purplish contain or...

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