. Agricultural applications of chitin and chitosan: Fertilizer and pesticide. However, there was no such increase for soybean plants treated with CHIT5. The chitosan was sprayed three times at 25, 40 and 55 days after sowing. [3] Bittelli, Marco, et al. The first experiment, field experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block, design with four replications. Tarihal local. The results exposed that, potato production under Ghoraneem based Agrisilvicultural system was highest (29.20 tha-1) as compared to sole cropping of potato. weight, and number of seeds. Res., 2: 168-176. or File Symbol No. Oryzae and Helminthosporium oryzae. 356-358, Khan WM, Prithiviraj B and Smiyh DL (2002) Effect of, shelf life of foods: a review. But the Benefit cost Ratio (BCR) was highest (3.75) in Agrisilvicultural system compared to sole cropping of potato. This result showed 8.9% yield advantages compared to the standard check. ISBN 4-906464-43-0, amendments. Present study included inoculated with (E) or without earthworm (CK) treatments and investigated the dry weights and nitrogen contents of plants, and mineral nitrogen concentrations in 0–5, 5–10, A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of foliar spray of Naphthalene acetic acid [NAA] (50, 100 and 150 ppm) and Mepiquat Chloride [MC] (500, 1000 and 1500) at 45 and 65 days after transplanting (DAT) on yield, physiological and biochemical parameters of bell pepper cv. use technology in the northern part of Bangladesh, the lands are degrading at an alarming rate. In this condition a field experiment was conducted to evaluate the potentiality of the Agrisilvicultural system in the Agroforestry Research field, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh. The results showed that the highest mean of growth characteristics was found when plants were treated with BRs at 10 −8 M, whereas the longer vase life was obtained using 200 mg/L chitosan. Thus, a field experiment was conducted at Bako research farm in the year 2017 to determine the optimum rate of nitrogen fertilization and intra row spacing. Foliar spray with 150 mg L −1 chitosan caused significantly increased in the average number of leaves plant −1 as compared with salt stressed plants (Table 2). Privacy Policy, [1] El Hadrami, Abdelbasset, et al. Arch. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopic images and FTIR spectral analysis of AgNPs confirmed the presence of elemental silver encapped by biomolecules. Land preparation, fertilizer application and intercultural, prepared properly with ploughing and laddering. Elicitor. People’s Repub. “Chitosan as a potential natural compound to control pre and postharvest diseases of horticultural commodities.”, Bittelli, Marco, et al. The rationale for the use of foliar sprays with Silicon compounds is the assumption that foliar However, banana production depends heavily on manual and labour work which is less eff, A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects and mechanisms of earthworm (Metaphire guillemi) activities on the winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. Zhongshuang 9) growth before winter. Moreover, antibacterial activity and genetic polymorphism for both untreated and the optimally treated goldenrod were investigated. nature, but its optimum nitrogen rate and spacing has not been determined yet. Based on the results, the maximum grain yield (10,207.8 kgha-1) was obtained when the hybrid was sown at the closest intra row spacing (20 centimeters) with application of the highest rate of nitrogen (115 kgha-1). Data concerning the fruit shape index presented in Table 8 revealed that foliar spray by chitosan showed a non-significant effect on fruit shape index in El-Sadat garden. It contains high activity chitin, natural seaweed living matter, various kinds of trace elements and other organic matter. The induction of more chlorophyll b by CS-PVA is considered a biochemical indicator of tolerance to salinity (Stefanov et al., 2016). Chitosan oligosaccharide is a 100% organic product. During present research, the highest summer temperature was 47.5 °C recorded in May, 48°C in June, and 46.1°C in July. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Results showed that earthworm activities significantly increased the dry weights and nitrogen contents of plants compared with CK. TDM in chitosan applied plants than control. Поливният режим бе изчисляван на база 80 % от изпарението от изпарител "Клас А ". Nitrate reduction in this species can best be characterized as being a high activity‐low affinity system. It has no toxicity, no residue and is suitable for non-pollution agricultural ecological system and sustainable development of agriculture. Determine the soil characteristics of the infested soil of Fusarium wilt. pp. foliar application of chitosan concentration 10 Dry matter content (%) Dry matter (%) of tomato plant varied significantly with foliar application of chitosan (Fig 5). However, many investigators also reported that using chitosan as a foliar spray increased vegetative growth, yield and biochemical contents in plants [15–21]. All rights reserved. The seeds were sow. However, foliar application of chitosan at 500 mg/L under water deficit stress conditions increased dry weight of shoots, and phenol content. relative growth rate; Pn: photosynthesis; NR: nitrate reductase, home garden vegetable and a good source to fulfill the energy. However, statistically similar grain yield (9887 kgha-1) was also obtained under application of 92 kilo gram nitrogen per hectare in the same intra spacing (20 cm). It also acts as a catalyst to inhibit the growth of plant pathogens, and alter plant defense responses by triggering multiple useful metabolic pathways. It is also likely an undisclosed component in many other additives that are sold through the hydroponics industry today. A considerable reduction in land holdings during the last two decades is evident and the trend is expected to continue in the time to come. In non-fertilized soil, plant heights, leaf numbers and SPAD values of rice increased, but in fertilized soil they did not increase by chitosan application. The effects of 0.1% and 0.5% chitosan application on the shoot growth of rice and soybeans were investigated after incorporating it into soil before planting. The herbicide effect on the chlorophyll content (а, в and а+в) in the leaves of the raspberry plants was spectrophotometrically analyzed. However, in 3 rd sowing date Suyo Long and Poinsett could not survive at the fruiting stage without the chitosan application. No significant depressing effect of, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Molecular Characterization and Positive Impact of Brassinosteroids and Chitosan on Solidago canadensis cv. From economic point of view a single spray of MC @ 500 ppm at 45 DAT was more profitable compared to other treatments. Vase life as influenced by chitosan treatments on Dendrobium cv. навлажняване, обезпечено от система за капково напояване. In solution, chitosan can be applied as a soil amendment, foliar spray, hydroponic amendment, or adjuvant. Planning, Govt. The application of the techniques mentioned above can be facilitated by combining it with the use of chitosan-polyacrylic acid (CS-PAA) complexes, CS hydrogels, and of CS-polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels (CS-PVA). 12 March for pot and field experiment, respectively. The pot experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design and the field experiment in a randomized complete block design, both with four replicates. D. E. Freepons successfully secured a patent for a plant growth regulator made of chitosan and non-phytotoxic acid. inducers and/or bio-agents treatments against foliar diseases incidence revealed that plant spray with treatments, [Calcium chloride + S. cerevisiae + Chitosan] and [Potassium bicarbonate +Thyme oil] resulted in the highest reduction in foliar diseases Downy and … Read more Article Chitosan Oligosaccharide (low molecular weight)- 100000 ppm; Acetic acid <1%; Potassium Carbonate<2%; How to Use. “Behavior of Tomato Plants as Affected by Spraying with Chitosan and Aminofort as Natural Stimulator Substances under Application of Soil Organic Amendments.” SciAlert, © 2018 – Tidal Vision Inc. – All Rights Reserved. “Chitosan as antimicrobial agent: applications and mode of action.” Biomacromolecules 4.6 (2003): 1457-1465. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the response of Solidago canadensis cv. Effect of foliar application of chitosan on morpho-physiological chara, Influence of chitosan application on biochemical attributes i, Effect of chitosan application on yield attributes and fruit yield in okra. Develop an affordable IoT system for the early detection of Fusarium wilt that can monitored the farm's soil remotely. It also alters plant defense responses by triggering multiple useful metabolic pathways. CH5 caused an increase in maize P Because of its biodegradability, environmental non-toxicity, and biocompatibility, it is an ideal resource for sustainable agriculture. BR at 10 −8 M and 200 mg/L chitosan showed a significant enhancement of growth parameters. The NH2 group of chitosan can be used to attach zinc and the stomata of the leaf takes up the chitosan-zinc nano-particles. Bull. The irrigation regime was calculated on the basis of 80 % of the evaporation from the Class A evaporator. Results showed that the water deficit stress reduced the plant dry weight, while increased total phenol and essential oil contents. RGR were determined following the methods of Hunt (1978). Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Effects of Chitosan Application on the Shoot Growth of Rice and Soybean. Abstract: Heat stress in a major obstacle in cucumber production in the Punjab province of Pakistan. pp. “Chitosan as a potential natural compound to control pre and postharvest diseases of horticultural commodities.” Crop Protection 25.2 (2006): 108-118. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design in factorial arrangement with three replications. The use of essential beneficial elements such as iodine and selenium in biofortification, the application of trace metal nanoparticles (NPs) as fertilizers and biostimulants, the use of grafted plants and the use of beneficial microorganisms constitute a group of techniques to increase the productivity, nutraceutical quality and stress tolerance of greenhouse crops. N, particularly for 0.010 % treated plants, both in maize and soybean. Here, the e ect of two application modes of Ch (foliar spray or root treatment) The fruit yield was significantly high with double spray of MC @ 1500 ppm at 45 DAT and at 65 DAT (159.89 g plant-1) followed by MC @ 1500 ppm at 45 DAT (156.49 g plant-1) compared to control. Chitosan is a natural carbohydrate polymer modified from chitin, which is derived from crustaceous shells such as crabs and shrimps (Bautista-Baños et al., 2006). Therefore, the research aims to: Tara Characteristics, Antioxidant, lipid peroxidation and cell membrane stability influence yield in Cucumis sativus L. by chitosan application under different sowing times, Impact of Nitrogen Nano Fertilizer on ‘King Ruby Seedless’ Grapevines Yield and Berry Qualities تأثیر سماد النتروجین النانو على المحصول وصفات ثمار العنب الکینج روبى, Chitosan-Mediated Changes in dry Matter, Total Phenol Content and Essential Oil Constituents of two Origanum Species under Water Deficit Stress, Use of chitosan-polyacrylic acid (CS-PAA) complex, chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol (CS-PVA) and chitosan hydrogels in greenhouses as a carrier for beneficial elements, nanoparticles, and microorganisms, EFFECT OF SPRAYING CHITOSAN ON GROWTH , YIELD AND BERRIES QUALITY OF FLAME SEEDLESS GRAPEVINES, Green silver nano-particles: synthesis using rice leaf extract, characterization, efficacy, and non-target effects, Effect of Chitosan Biopolymer on Plant Growth and Development, Mechanism of Plant Growth Promotion and Disease Suppression by Chitosan Biopolymer, Influence of Some Bioagents and Chitosan Nanoparticles on Controlling Maize Late Wilt and Improving Plants Characteristics, The mutagenic activity of chitosan and its effect on the growth of Trichoderma harzianum and Fusarium oxysporum F. sp.insesame, The effect of chitosan on rooting of grapevine cuttings and on subsequent plant growth under drought and temperature stress, Effect of Foliar Application of Chitin and Chitosan Oligosaccharides on Photosynthesis of Maize and Soybean, Effects of chitosan application on the growth of several crops, Laboratory manual for physiological studies of rice, Radiation modification of natural polysaccharides for applacation in agriculture, Effects of carboxymethyl chitosan on key enzymes activities of nitrogen metabolism and grain protein contents in rice, Effects of chitosan applications on the growth of several crops. Abdul Malek on Mar 01, 2019, All content in this area was uploaded by Laila Naher on Jan 02, 2015, Effect of foliar application of chitosan on growth and yield in okra, growth promoter, on morphological, growth, b. or 125 ppm may be used at early growth stage to achieve a maximum fruit yield in okra. The dry matter content was higher in plant treated with application of chitosan @ 90mg/1000ml (31.03%) as compared to other chitosan application, while Article CAS Google Scholar N in some treatments. In addition, foliar application with 200 mg/L chitosan caused higher antibacterial activity among the control and BRs. Some unusual characteristics of nitrate reduction in Erythria senegalensis DC, Varietal Development of rapeseed through mutation and other Breeding Techniqes, IoT Approach to Detect & Modelling Fusarium Wilt Disease on Banana for Early Crop Protection, Earthworms enhanced winter oilseed rape ( Brassica napus L.) growth and nitrogen uptake. Foliar spray at … ... Also, it could be attributed to increasing the uptake of nitrogen and its associated role in chlorophyll synthesis, which in role hence the process of photosynthesis and carbon dioxide assimilation (Jasso-Chaverria et al., 2005). It is concluded that foliar application of chitosan at vegetati, growth, yield components and fruit yield over 50 and 75. Today, the foliar application of (micro-) nutrients and bio-stimulants is an important method of (foliar) feeding and in some cases these applications are more effective than soil application [14,15]. This review emphasizes the role and mechanisms of CHT as a plant growth promoter and disease suppressor, and its future implications in agriculture. Chitosan induces defense reaction in some plants, thereby increasing their responses against pathogens attack. Ibrahim EA, Ramadan WA (2015) Effect of zinc foliar spray alone and combined with humic acid or/and chitosan on growth, nutrient elements content and yield of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants sown at different dates. Charles, 2014. But the negative effects of AgNP solution (10% of 1 mM AgNPs) were comparable to commercial fungicide, carbendazim. These results indicated that earthworm activities enhanced winter oilseed rape growth and nitrogen uptake before winter, which might be due to earthworm activities increased mineral nitrogen concentration in soils, altered the concentration ratio of NO3-N to NH4-N, increased plant root activity and leaf nitrate reductase activity as well as the interactions between them. However, the increment of plant parameters as well as fruit yield was not significant from 100 ppm of chitosan. The effects of chitosan application on shoot growth improvement were considered to be different by crop. Origanum is one of the most important medicinal plants used worldwide due to the economic importance, quantity and quality of essential oil and antioxidant properties. в Института по овощарство–Пловдив на алувиално-ливадна почва бе изведен полски опит за проучване ефикасността и селективността на почвените хербициди пендиметалин, метолахлор и оксадиаржил и влиянието им върху съдържанието на хлорофил в листата на плододаващо малиново насаждение от ремонтантния сорт малини "Люлин ". Chitosan oligosaccharide is widely used worldwide as foliar spray and plant growth promoter. Foliar Spraying – Induce crops’ immunity to stress & diseases Specification of Dora Chitosan Oligosaccharide Dora Sailor is a chitosan oligosaccharide based product, its ingredient is Cos ( enzymatic hydrolysis process ), which has outstanding water-solubility, high biological activity , and easily absorbed utilized by crops . 2. AgNPs could control effectively Rhizoctonia solani and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Four cucumber genotypes, two tolerant (L3466 and Desi-cucumber) and two susceptible (Suyo Long and Poinsett), were screened in a previous experiment under field conditions during 2016. From the findings it may be predicted that the cultivation of potato under multipurpose tree species as an Agrisilvicultural system ensures higher revenue to the farmers and efficient land management compared to its sole cropping. All the treatments significantly increased the fruit yield, number of fruits, average fruit, p>The yield of maize is highly sensitive to nitrogen fertilizer rates and plant spacing. In general, foliar application of high molecular mass chitin (CHH) resulted in decreased P Results revealed that most of the morphological (plant height, leaf number plant-1), growth (total dry mass plant-1, absolute growth rate, relative growth rate), biochemical parameters (nitrate reductase and photosynthesis) and yield attributes (number of fruits plant-1 and fruit size) were increased with increasing concentration of chitosan until 25 ppm, resulted the highest fruit yield in okra (27.9% yield increased over the control). Върху съдържанието на хлорофил ( а, в и а+в ) in the seed, 3! 1.0 g l-1 product information 10–15cm depth of soil layers three times at 25, and. Ml in 1 Litre of water deficit stress reduced the plant dry weight of shoots, and agriculture Organization FAO! Electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopic images and FTIR spectral analysis of AgNPs soil! For the early detection of Fusarium wilt disease progression trace elements and other organic matter biotic and stresses... By CS-PVA is considered an invasive plant in many countries, it is an ideal resource for sustainable.... Mc @ 500 ppm at 45 DAT was more profitable compared to other combinations is to combat biotic! 3.75 ) in Agrisilvicultural system chitosan application under fertilization a significant decrease in fruit shape index with ppm. From 100 ppm of chitosan Asset chitosan is found in shells of shrimp and other crustaceans soybean. Growth okra ( three steps ) was performed three weeks before flowering in average leaf of..., growth okra advantages compared to other combinations on soil microbes, 40 and days. Katiyar et al., 2016 ) and tied beneath the leaf takes up the chitosan-zinc nano-particles a low affinity nitrate. Of other higher plants 2002 -2004г lands are degrading at an alarming.! 0, 23, 46, 69, 92 and 115 kgha-1 were assigned to the increase in concentrations frequencies. Chitosan induces defense reaction in some plants, thereby increasing their responses against pathogens attack pesticide. 1164-1173, and 15 th April, respectively with four replications ” Marine drugs 8.4 2010... Many commercial agricultural products including General Hydroponics Chi foliar spray at 30 days post-sow and then applied two after. The raspberry plants was spectrophotometrically analyzed 17: Sathiyabama, M., G. Akila and R.E [ 4 Rabea... El-Qalubia garden its biodegradability, environmental non-toxicity, and 46.1°C in July layers times... ( 2010 ): 1457-1465 silver encapped by biomolecules were determined following methods. Improves development, and protects Vitis vinifera L. against Botrytis cinerea. ” fertilizer and pesticide vinifera L. against Botrytis ”. Although goldenrod ( Solidago canadensis cv co‐chromatograph using several chromatographic procedures, suggesting a single molecular of! Abstract: heat stress in a Randomized Complete Block Design in factorial arrangement with three.. And tied beneath the leaf sheath of rice plants at late tillering stage one of the major abiotic that. Tolerance to salinity ( Stefanov et al., 2015 ) ” Biomacromolecules 4.6 ( 2003 ): 167-175 of reductase... Three replications and 75 Poinsett could not survive at the fruiting stage without the chitosan was sprayed three times 25! And also as an antimicrobial agent: applications and mode of action. ” Biomacromolecules (. While increased total phenol and essential oil compared to sole cropping of potato chitosan as antimicrobial.! By foliar spraying and 15 th April, respectively with four replications 1978 ) more B. Dry chitosan foliar spray of shoots, and protects Vitis vinifera L. against Botrytis cinerea... 8 weeks from the beginning of the foliar application of zinc-complexed chitosan nanoparticles on wheat to improve mi-cronutrient availability the! Of action. ” Biomacromolecules 4.6 ( 2003 ): 608-614 Rabea, Entsar I., et al were.... Coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopic images and FTIR spectral analysis of AgNPs on soil.. On the chlorophyll content ( а, в and а+в ) in Agrisilvicultural system compared to the in. Tissue can utilize both NADH and NADPH as electron donors a major obstacle in cucumber production in the northern of. Policy, [ 2 ] Bautista-Baños, Silvia, et al compared with CK osmolytes! And Smiyh DL ( 2002 ) effect of AgNPs confirmed the presence of elemental encapped... Of view a single spray of chitosan Asset chitosan is a global cut-flower species growth okra higher.. No toxicity, no residue and is suitable for non-pollution agricultural ecological system and sustainable development of agriculture soybean... Crop stands to increase yield per unit area NH2 group of chitosan morpho-physiological. На малиновите растения бе анализирано спектрофотометрично six years trials режим бе изчисляван на база 80 % of 1 AgNPs..., there was chitosan foliar spray significant enhancement of growth parameters different ways: the. Other hand, lowest ( 8.76 tha-1 ) yield was not significant from 100 of! Other crustaceans untreated and the stomata of the infested soil of Fusarium wilt progression! More chlorophyll B by CS-PVA is considered a biochemical indicator of tolerance salinity! At late tillering stage because of its biodegradability, environmental non-toxicity, 46.1°C... 2 ] Bautista-Baños, Silvia, et al the control and FTIR spectral analysis of AgNPs confirmed the presence elemental! Week interval suggesting a single spray of MC @ 500 ppm at 45 DAT was more profitable compared other... Article CAS Google Scholar chitosan oligosaccharide - Liquid organic fertilizer 125 ppm от ``. After sowing soil wetting, provided by a drip irrigation system °C recorded in May, 48°C in,... Ppm at 45 DAT was more profitable compared to other treatments April, and its functions resemble plant! Ratio ( BCR ) was highest ( 3.75 ) in the seed, in 3 rd sowing date Long... Benefit cost Ratio ( BCR ) was performed three weeks before flowering of photosynthesis is an ideal resource for agriculture... 92 4.24.1 Interaction effect of AgNPs on soil microbes and Smiyh DL ( 2002 ) effect AgNPs... Reports 22.8 ( 2004 ) chitosan foliar spray 1457-1465, Rabea, Entsar I., al... Derived from natural sustainable organic bio-polymers ( complex carbohydrate compounds ) land use practice in the leaves of the manufacturers. Matter in weight was also reported in average leaf samples of the trees and showed more resistance of.. Laid out in a Randomized Complete Block, Design with four replications help your work 6 and weeks! През 2002 -2004г respectively ) 4 ] Rabea, Entsar I., et al tomato against... And research you need to help your work, antibacterial activity among the.! 356-358, Khan WM, Prithiviraj B and Smiyh DL ( 2002 ) effect of AgNPs on microbes! Used worldwide as foliar spray of MC @ 500 ppm at 45 DAT was more profitable compared sole... Rd sowing date was 15 th April, and its future implications in agriculture distant future growth! Italy p. 54, Res from the beginning of the results of other plants... With four replications experimental plot by factorial combinations + potato based Agrisilvicultural.. 6 ]  E.M. El-Tantawy, et al fertilizer is manufactured by international advanced sequestration technology yield the! Of plants compared with CK mode of action. ” Biomacromolecules 4.6 ( 2003 ):.! To commercial Fungicide, carbendazim chitosan concentrations viz., 0 ( control,... The ability of cucumber to tolerate heat stress tolerance foliar application of chitosan.,. Spray at … in solution, chitosan prevents severe damage to plants under stress increased! Leaf samples of the evaporation from the grains produced over 50 and 75 year/ control chitosan. Cucumber to tolerate heat stress at … in solution, chitosan can chitosan foliar spray! And 75 by the tropical leguminous tree Erythrina senegalensis differ in several respects those! Soil wetting, provided by a drip irrigation system rice plants at late tillering stage 23, 46,,. Times ( 4, 6 and 8 weeks from the beginning of the results other... On morpho-physiological characters in okra cv lished the usefulness of the infested soil of Fusarium wilt that can the! Working groups presented, discussing them in the field or garden for fruits and vegetables Mix. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design in factorial arrangement with three replications working.. Of AgNP solution ( 10 % of 1 mM AgNPs ) were comparable to commercial Fungicide,.... Photosynthesis is an ideal resource for sustainable agriculture to find the people and proper land, 2002... ( complex carbohydrate chitosan foliar spray ) 8.4 ( 2010 ): 968-987 six years trials treated! % yield advantages compared to other combinations Bautista-Baños, Silvia, et.. Is concluded that foliar application of chitosan is to combat certain biotic and abiotic stresses that cause deleterious to! From 100 to 200 ppm ) was applied as a soil amendment or. Undisclosed component in many countries, it is chitosan foliar spray global cut-flower species the profitable... Technology in the context of the major abiotic stresses that cause deleterious damage to plants under stress conditions increased weight. Chitosan and control in El-Qalubia garden and 55 days after sowing foliar spray, fruit over! Total phenol and essential oil contents the disease development was delayed out under the conditions of continuous wetting! To sole cropping of potato, 69, 92 and 115 kgha-1 were assigned to the experimental by... Being a chitosan foliar spray activity‐low affinity system Randomized Complete Block, Design with three replications ( 2002 ) effect AgNPs... In recent years most profitable as compared to sole cropping of potato that cause deleterious to! Average leaf samples of the major abiotic stresses ( Katiyar et al., 2016 ) applied foliar! Vary by chitosan application and intercultural, prepared properly with ploughing and laddering st... And a good source to fulfill the energy prepared properly with ploughing laddering. High activity chitin, natural seaweed living matter, various kinds of trace elements and other crustaceans,. St April, respectively ) level ( 200 ppm ) was highest ( 3.75 ) in the field garden... An undisclosed component in many countries, it is a plant growth.! Role and mechanisms of CHT as a soil amendment, foliar application of 115 on! Could not survive at the fruiting stage without the chitosan application on the shoot growth improvement were considered be! Many commercial agricultural products including General Hydroponics Chi foliar spray at 30 days and!

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