These interpretations are heavily contextualized, and are naturally less generalizable to other contexts. First, this type of research tends to be more time and resource intensive than positivist research in data collection and analytic efforts. During that process, she learnt and chronicled how chimpanzees seek food and shelter, how they socialize with each other, their communication patterns, their mating behaviors, and so forth. For the proponents of this research model, knowledge arises from the interaction between the researcher and the object of study. The interpretive paradigm just wants to discover reality. A research paradigm is defined as a “set of common beliefs and agreements” shared by researchers regarding “how problems should be understood and addressed” (Kuhn, 1962). This is known as the comparative method. They use meaning (versus measurement) oriented methodologies, such as interviewing or participant observation, that rely on a subjective relationship between the … Qualitative Psychology: A Practical Guide to Research Methods . The existential phenomenological research method. This idea is similar to that of external validity in functionalistic research. Such numeric data helped her clearly distinguish the high-speed decision making firms from the low-speed decision makers, without relying on respondents’ subjective perceptions, which then allowed her to examine the number of decision alternatives considered by and the extent of conflict in high-speed versus low-speed firms. Why one paradigm is quantitative while other is qualitative in nature? Because interpretive research is based on different set of ontological and epistemological assumptions about social phenomenon than positivist research, the positivist notions of rigor, such as reliability, internal validity, and generalizability, do not apply in a similar manner. The analysis then delves into these themes to identify multiple layers of meaning while retaining the fragility and ambiguity of subjects’ lived experiences. The answers to the research questions can be solv… The interpretive paradigm focuses on the way in which knowledge about individuals and cultures is generated. Action planning involves identifying and evaluating alternative solutions to the problem, and deciding on a future course of action (based on theoretical rationale). The ethnographic research method, derived largely from the field of anthropology, emphasizes studying a phenomenon within the context of its culture. In addition to fundamental paradigmatic differences in ontological and epistemological assumptions discussed above, interpretive and positivist research differ in several other ways. Practitioners look at their own practice and try to improve it, and develop their understanding of it. The interpretive paradigm focuses on the way in which knowledge about individuals and cultures is generated. A research paradigm intends to define approaches to social science research (Taber, 2013:287. Examples of questions that may be asked include “can you describe a typical day” or “can you describe that particular incident in more detail?” These interviews are recorded and transcribed for further analysis. A third technique is documentation , where external and internal documents, such as memos, electronic mails, annual reports, financial statements, newspaper articles, websites, may be used to cast further insight into the phenomenon of interest or to corroborate other forms of evidence. This differs from most other data collection and research methods because it shifts the focus away … Blog posts that were useful: Observational techniques include direct observation , where the researcher is a neutral and passive external observer and is not involved in the phenomenon of interest (as in case research), and participant observation , where the researcher is an active participant in the phenomenon and her inputs or mere presence influence the phenomenon being studied (as in action research). - It does not seek to find general explanations for phenomena based on specific cases, as other quantitative research currents do. From an ontological perspective, unlike the position of the positivist paradigm in which there is the belief that there is only one truth and that objective reality does exist independent of human perception, this study employs the constructivist view of reality and the essence of phenomenon. In this method, the researcher is usually a consultant or an organizational member embedded into a social context (such as an organization), who initiates an action in response to a social problem, and examines how her action influences the phenomenon while also learning and generating insights about the relationship between the action and the phenomenon. Interpretive interpretations tend to focus on language, signs, and meanings from the perspective of the participants involved in the social phenomenon, in contrast to statistical techniques that are employed heavily in positivist research. They believe that a social reality can take its fo… This concept is similar to that of reliability in positivist research, with agreement between two independent researchers being similar to the notion of inter-rater reliability, and agreement between two observations of the same phenomenon by the same researcher akin to test -retest reliability. Phenomenology is a research method that emphasizes the study of conscious experiences as a way of understanding the reality around us. His theory is based on the idea that the reality we experience is mediated by the way we interpret it. Administrative Science Quarterly , (23), 582-603. Interpretive research is a research paradigm (see Chapter 3) that is based on the assumption that social reality is not singular or objective, but is rather shaped by human experiences and social contexts (ontology), and is therefore best studied within its socio-historic context by reconciling the subjective. Social Science Research: Principles, Methods, and Practices. Examples of actions may include organizational change programs, such as the introduction of new organizational processes, procedures, people, or technology or replacement of old ones, initiated with the goal of improving an organization’s performance or profitability in its business environment. Hence, qualitative research is not amenable to statistical procedures such as regression analysis, but is coded using techniques like content analysis. Interpretivism. Finally, interpretive research may sometimes fail to answer the research questions of interest or predict future behaviors. The Goal of an Interpretivist Approach to Research With interpretivist research, the goal is to develop an understanding of the subjects and the topic. Based on action evaluation and learning, the action may be modified or adjusted to address the problem better, and the action research cycle is repeated with the modified action sequence. This concept is akin to that of internal validity in functionalistic research. Therefore, it is typical of human and social sciences, contrary to the quantitative paradigm that can be found more often in pure sciences. This method, illustrated in Figure 10.2, can be grouped into data collection and data analysis phases. 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